The origin of dog

Translated by Olivier van Renswoude from his original Dutch piece.

The origin of the English word dog has been a riddle for ages. It developed through Middle English dogge from Old English docga, after which the trail seems to go cold. At first it referred mostly to dogs of a coarser nature and was often used disparagingly, also as an insult to people. Eventually it pushed past hound, which in the sister languages –like Icelandic hundur, Norwegian hund, German Hund and Dutch hond– is still the general word for man’s best friend, and spread to other languages. Where did this English word come from? A possible answer lies in the comparison with some Dutch words.

The Polish etymologist Piotr Gąsiorowski put forth a new proposal just a few years ago, by interpreting Old English docga as a pet form of dox/dohx ‘of a certain dark hue’ (cf. English dusk), like frocga/frogga ‘frog’ beside frox/frosc/forsc ‘id.’. That is to say, the name would originally have referred to a darker type of dog. That is possible, but not very compelling, more so as the Dutch etymologist Guus Kroonen made it plausible that frox and such were derived from frocga and such rather than the other way around.

More interesting then is the occurrence of Dutch dog, dogge ‘codfish’ (also a certain type of net with which to catch it). From this was derived –albeit attested earlier– Middle Dutch dogger ‘one who fishes with a drag net, who catches certain seafish; fishing boat; flounder boat; herring boat’. What could codfish and such have in common with dogs? But there is more, namely Dutch Low German dogge ‘dope, crude, not too clever person or animal’ and Old Norse dugga (f.) ‘coward, worthless fellow’. The Dutch etymologist A.A. Weijnen thought it possible that these two were cognate with English dog, but offered no further etymology. Now, it is possible that all these words go back to a single ancestral word, in the form of Old Germanic *duggō. What might we then connect it to and what would it mean?

To answer that question we have to take a look at a certain type of verb which was very common to Old Germanic. Its original conjugation was marked by a peculiar difference in the consonants at the end of the root: a short soft one in the plural, opposite a long sharp one in the singular. Speakers had the inclination to level that difference, but not all in the same direction, so that out of that single original verb several different verbs usually developed in the daughter languages. Five examples:

*tukkōþi ‘he/she/it pulls, jerks, *tugunanþi ‘they pull, jerk’

Middle Dutch tocken, Old High German zockōn
Middle Dutch token, Old High German zohhōn
Middle English toggen, English tug
Old English togian, Old Norse toga, Middle Dutch togen, Old High German zogōn

*bukkōþi ‘he/she/it bows’, *bugunanþi ‘they bow’

Old Frisian bukkia, Middle Dutch bocken, Dutch bukken, Norwegian bukka

Norwegian boga

*skukkōþi ‘he/she/it shakes, *skugunanþi ‘they shake’

Middle Dutch schocken, Middle High German schocken, Early English shock

Middle English shoggen, English shog

*rukkōþi ‘he/she/it moves to and fro’, *rugunanþi ‘they move to and fro’

Old English roccian, English rock, Frisian rokke, rukke, Icelandic rokka

Old Norse rugga, Icelandic rugga, rogga
Icelandic roga

*dukkōþi ‘he/she/it goes under, *dugunanþi ‘they go under’

Middle Dutch ducken ‘to dive, duck’, Early Dutch docken ‘to dive’
Early Dutch doken ‘to hide’

Well then, with this last verb it is plausible that the form *duggōną, though not attested in the daughter languages, existed and that from this our *duggō was derived. The word then meant as much as ‘stumbler’ and ‘low someone or something’ and could henceforth be used to refer to coarse dogs (English dog), dopey people and animals (Dutch Low German dogge), worthless fellows (Old Norse dugga) and also to bottom dwelling fish like codfish (Dutch dogge).

Closely related are *dūkaną ‘to go under’ (English duck, Dutch duiken ‘to dive’ etc.), *daugijaną ‘to undergo’ (Old English gedíegan ‘to suffer, endure’, Dutch gedogen ‘to tolerate’ etc.) and *daugalaz ‘hidden underground, underwater, in the deep’ (Old English déagol, Old Saxon dôgal ‘hidden, secret’ etc.).


Gąsiorowski, P., “The etymology of Old English *docga”, in Indogermanische Forschungen, 111. Band (2006)

INL, Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek (web edition)

INL, Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (web edition)

Kocks, G.H., Woordenboek van de Drentse dialecten, 1e deel A–L (Assen, 1996)

Kroonen, G., Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden, 2013)

Kroonen, G., The Proto-Germanic n-stems (Leiden, 2011)

Philippa, M., e.a., Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands (web edition)

Vries, J. de, Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (Leiden, 1962)

Weijnen, A.A., Etymologisch dialectwoordenboek, 2e druk (The Hague, 2003)

8 gedachtes over “The origin of dog

  1. I am wondering why god when spelled backwards means dog. Something is worrying me about the words dog and god, and it being man’s best friend. And how come the word ‘god’ doesn’t sound like the other European general words for ‘diety’. IE: french-dieu, Spanish-Dios. What the hell is ‘god’. That word doesn’t sound right.

    1. It’s just a coincidence and wasn’t always thus, since dog developed from docga, as stated in the text. It’s the natural flow of language for words to simplify through the ages and resemble each other in all manners of ways. So for instance the verb to bear ‘to carry’ and the animal name bear have only recently become alike.

      The word god comes from Old Germanic *gudą in pagan times. Indeed it doesn’t seem to have any direct cognates in the other Indo-European languages. But we can identify three possible roots, according to which the word originally meant either ‘the invoked’ or ‘the libated’ or ‘the esteemed’.

      Meanwhile, Spanish dios and French dieu are reflexes of Latin deus and it from Indo-European *deiu̯os ‘skyling’, also a pagan word originally. That otherwise developed into Old Germanic *tīwaz, which was also used to name a specific deity (once the old Sky Father) and which survives as English Tue in Tuesday, literally Tue’s day.

  2. What about the word logga that is supposed to be and old version of wagging (as in wagging a tail)? In danish it’s still called “Logre” when a dog is wagging its tail. Is it possible that word dogga comes from logga?

    1. Highly unlikely. In the Germanic languages, an l doesn’t just turn into a d or vice versa, at least not when it’s at the beginning of a word.

  3. I found your page when searching on the origins of the word “dog” in English. You have outlined exactly what I was wondering myself. It seemed to me there could be a connection between “dog” and the word “dodge”, simply by nature of how dogs behave. And now the internet has evolved “dog” into “doge”, seemingly reinforcing this connection. Thank you for a wonderful article.

    1. Thanks for your comment, Tim. Unfortunately the pedigree of dodge is even more of a riddle. As far as I know, the sound sequence behind -odge- cannot have developed regularly from any Old Germanic form, which leaves us with several options for this word: it’s a relatively new sound expressive word (or a sound expressive alteration of another), or maybe a borrowing from another language, French being the usual suspect. Compare how lodge is from Old French loge ‘shelter’.

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